Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
From Canaan to Connecticut --
The Story of the Algonquian Indians!
When Joshua invaded the Promised Land he set in motion a powerful chain of events that would have far reaching implications across the Atlantic Ocean in North America. As his victorious army smashed Canaanite resistance, survivors of the onslaught fled southwest into North Africa and northwards into Anatolia. From these points large migrations of the Canaanite tribes were launched into Europe and the British Isles -- and thence to the North American continent. This article tells the story of one group of Canaanites that found their way across Siberia and the Bering Strait to the wild hinterland of what is now the United States and Canada.
by John D. Keyser
When Joshua the son of Nun entered the Promised Land at the head of the children of Israel, he set about implementing the commands of YEHOVAH God regarding the Canaanites in the land:
"When the Lord your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and He DISLODGES many nations before you -- the HITTITES, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you -- and the Lord your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you must doom them to destruction: grant them no terms and give them no quarter....this is what you shall do to them: you shall tear down their altars, smash their pillars, cut down their SACRED POSTS, and consign their images to the fire....You shall destroy all the peoples that the Lord your God delivers to you, showing them no pity....The Lord your God will DISLODGE those peoples before you little by little; you will not be able to put an end to them at once, else the wild beasts would multiply to your hurt. The Lord your God will deliver them up to you, throwing them into utter panic until they are wiped out. He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you shall obliterate their name from under the heavens..." (Deuteronomy 7: 1-2, 5, 16, 22-24. Tanakh).
When Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan river just north of the Dead Sea, they camped a while at Gilgal, then moved to take Jericho and Ai. Afterward, they returned to Gilgal (Joshua 1-8). After making peace with Gibeon, Joshua led the Israelites through the Valley of Aijalon and defeated the five Amorite kings (Joshua 9-10). From Makkedah, Joshua launched a SOUTHERN campaign against Lachish, Hebron, Debir and Gaza.
Those of the inhabitants who were not put to the sword by the Israelites, FLED TO EGYPT and sought refuge there. Samuel Purchas, in his book Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages, records this flight:
"Procopius...affirms, that all the seacoast, in those times, from Sidon to Egypt, was called Phoenicia: and that when Joshua invaded them, they [those that weren't killed] LEFT THEIR COUNTRY, and FLED INTO EGYPT..." (1613. Book I, chapter XVIII, p. 85).
After a victorious campaign, Joshua and the Israelites returned to Gilgal for a period of time before launching any more campaigns against the Canaanites. The Canaanites who had fled the country, however, pushed further into Africa: "...there [in Egypt] multiplying, [the Canaanites] pierced further into Africa; where they POSSESSED ALL THAT TRACT, UNTO THE PILLARS OF HERCULES, speaking half Phoenician" (Ibid., same page).
Close to the Pillars of Hercules, on the African side, the vanquished Canaanite refugees built two cities: "They [the Canaanites] built THE CITY OF TINGE AND TANGER IN NUMIDIA, where were two pillars of white stone, placed near to a great fountain, in which, in the Phoenician tongue, was engraven: WE ARE CANAANITES, WHOM JOSHUA THE THIEF CHASED AWAY" (Ibid., same page).
In The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by Wm. Whiston, is a footnote on page 110 that corroborates Purchas' record --
"Moses Chorenensis sets down the FAMOUS INSCRIPTION AT TANGIER [TANGER] concerning the old CANAANITES driven out of Palestine by Joshua thus: 'We are those exiles that were governors of the Canaanites, but have been driven away by Joshua the robber, AND ARE COME TO INHABIT HERE'" -- Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids. 1988.
In time these inhabitants of Northern Africa became known as Berbers and Moors.
From Numidia the Canaanites soon made it across the Straits of Gibraltar and reached as far north as Scandinavia and the British Ises. In these countries (and Europe in general) they have left evidence of their existence over large areas of land, and are known to the anthropologists as the "Beaker People."
The Northward Thrust
After a respite at Gilgal, Joshua and the Israelites thrust NORTHWARD as far as Hazor, meeting the Canaanite hosts by the waters of Merom. Here they utterly defeated the combined forces of the Amorites, HITTITES, Perizzites, Jebusites and Hivites.
The land of the HITTITES, at the time of the conquest, extended north of Palestine through Syria to the Euphrates river -- see Judges 1:26. Following their defeat at the hands of Joshua the Hittites, along with others of the Canaanites, fled northward through Syria into ANATOLIA. Notes Herman L. Hoeh of Ambassador College:
"So famous were these people, so different from other races, that they gave their name to all the lands where they migrated. As late as the Chaldean Empire of Nebuchadnezzar the name HATTI, or CHATTI, was applied to Syria-Palestine and to part of eastern Asia Minor. In Egyptian monuments the true Hittite peoples were depicted with PROMINENT NOSES, straight or hawked, 'somewhat broad, with LIPS FULL, the CHECK-BONES HIGH, the eyebrows fairly prominent, the FOREHEAD RECEDING like the CHIN, and THE FACE HAIRLESS.' 'The hair is BLACK, the EYES DARK BROWN.' (The Races of the Old Testament, by A. H. Sayce, page 133) The SKIN COLOR varied from BROWN to YELLOWISH and REDDISH. Greek tradition insists the people were a WARLIKE, RUDE PEOPLE, KNOWN FOR THEIR FRENZIED DANCES AND MUSIC." -- Compendium of World History, Vol. 1. Ambassador College, 1963. Pp. 359-360.
While some of the refugees from the invasion of Joshua and the Israelites stayed in Asia Minor and became part of the great Hittite Empire, a number of them crossed over into EUROPE and traveled to the area of modern SCANDINAVIA and Britain. The evidence of this migration was left in an unusual way!
The supreme god of the Canaanites was the WEATHER-GOD. Archaeologists have uncovered representations of this deity, MOUNTED ON BULLS, at sites all across the map of Europe! "Archaeological sites that have yielded representations of DEITIES MOUNTED ON BULLS leave a 'MIGRATORY TRAIL' of dots across the map [of Europe]. The route runs from the SYRO-HITTITE AREA, ALONG THE DANUBE, TO THE LOWER RHINE AND THE BRITISH ISLES" (The Hittites: People of a Thousand Gods, by Johannes Lehmann. The Viking Press, N.Y. 1977. P. 269).
Theodor Bossert, a leading Hittitologist, included a map showing all the sites that have yielded this deity (STANDING OR SITTING ON A BULL) in his book Altanotolien. The map clearly shows that the sites RUN A STRAIGHT LINE from SYRIA to BOGAZKOY [in Anatolia] and FROM THERE ALONG THE DANUBE TO THE RHINE, with an offshoot veering left to Italy. This god mounted on a bull is the HITTITE WEATHER-GOD. A particularly fine example from the Roman period, portrays him complete with all his attributes (e.g. thunderbolts and DOUBLE-AXE) and riding a BULL, was found at HEDDERNHEIM, now part of FRANKFURT-AM-MAIN, early in the present century.
What, then, did this "weather-god" mounted on a BULL represent?
Amihai Mazar provides the answer: "In the Canaanite religion, the bull was the accompanying animal and SYMBOL OF BAAL, the storm god; in several Canaanite and later Syrian artistic depictions the storm god is seen standing on the back of a bull (Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, p.351).
Cult places where Baal was worshipped in the form of a bull have been uncovered in various parts of Palestine. Notes Mazar --
"On a high ridge in the northern Samarian Hills, in the heart of the Israelite settlement region, an open cult place has been found which is perhaps one of the few examples known of the biblical "high places" built "on every high hill and under every spreading tree" (I Kings 14:23). On the ridge's summit a CIRCLE OF LARGE STONES was laid, some 20m in diameter; the empty center of the circle was perhaps reserved for a sacred tree. On the circle's eastern side, a large stone was found standing on its narrow long side. Due to this stone's position in front of a paved area on which several offerings were found, it seems to have served as a MASSEBAH, a "STANDING STONE." A unique find here was a 0.18-m-long bronze statuette of a BULL, which apparently was a major object of worship at this site; it is reminiscent of the golden calf described in the Bible in connection with the Exodus tradition and with the temples erected by Jeroboam I at Bethel and at Dan" (ibid., pp.350-351).
Bronze statuettes of bulls are to be found throughout Canaanite culture -- particularly at Hazor and Ugarit.
In the Historie af Danmark by Suhm, published in 1775, the arrival of the Canaanites in Scandinavia is recorded: "Messenius...says that CANAANITES, which were DRIVEN OUT BY JOSHUA, came to Scondia which they called henceforth SCANDINAVIA. This is supposed to have happened 844 YEARS AFTER THE FLOOD...And Arngrim Jonae, the learned Icelander, insists that THE CANAANITES, DRIVEN OUT BY JOSHUA, WERE THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH..." (Page 101).
By the time Gathelus and his followers (see our article The Stone That Roared: The Incredible Story of Lia-Fail) reached Germany in the decades immediately following the Exodus, they found the Canaanites already in residence there:
"They [Gathelus, Scota and their followers] went at last till they reached GERMANY; they make a halt in it.
"It is there that there came a troop of the soldiers of the PICT-FOLK [a name the Canaanites were called by other nations], on account of the fame and glory of that sea expedition of Golamh [Gathelus]; they having had knowledge of one another FROM THE TIME HE WAS IN THRACIA with his people. Each of them welcomed the other, and they joined their treaty and friendship on each side. When they were agreed together, the PICTS [Canaanites] complained to them of the narrowness of THEIR LAND AND TERRITORY IN THRACIA AND IN PICT-LAND. Golamh [Gathelus] with his brethren, and his CHILDREN promised that they would give help and military alliance with them, to contend for ANOTHER TERRITORY and fair heritage; and that they would be united against their enemies as though they were brethren; until that they [Gathelus and his people] should get rest and should desist from the sea-journeyings and wanderings on which they were, and that they should reach their native land. The PICTS [Canaanites] were satisfied with that, and took farewell of Golamh [Gathelus] thereafter. It is from that treaty and friendship which the PICTS joined with Golamh that, long afterwards, the GAEDAL perforce cleared for them THE LAND WHERE THE PICTS [CANAANITES] ARE, as Golamh [Gathelus] foretold at that time." -- Leabhar Gabhala: The Book of Conquests of Ireland, The Recension of Micheal O'Cleirigh. Part I. Edited by MacAlister & MacNeill. Hodges, Friggis & Co., Ltd. Dublin. 1916. P. 233.
Years later HEREMON, the son of Gathelus, would fulfill this promise.
Hu the Mighty
Shortly after the fleeing Canaanites became ensconsed in north-west Europe, another great migration took place that was to once again uproot the vanquished descendants of Canaan! In the Welsh TRIADS (traditional chronicles) we find mentioned a mysterious man by the name of HU THE MIGHTY, who led a group of settlers from the Middle East to the isles of Britain.
E. Raymond Capt tells the story:
"...HU GARDARN HYSCION (ISAACSON?) or 'HU THE MIGHTY,' led a party of settlers FROM ASIA MINOR TO BRITAIN. A DESCENDANT OF ABRAHAM, Hu the Mighty's coming to Britain provides one of the first recorded instances of the fulfillment of the prophecy found in Genesis 28:14; that the 'seed' of Abraham would spread abroad, to the four points of the compass.
"The Welsh TRIADS, or 'traditional chronicles,' give evidence of HU THE MIGHTY COMING FROM ASIA MINOR. In the Welsh Triad 4, we read that: 'The FIRST of the THREE CHIEFTAINS who established the colony was Hu the Mighty, who CAME WITH THE ORIGINAL SETTLERS. They came over the Hazy Sea from the summer country, which is called DEFROBANI, that is where Constinoblys now stands.'" -- Stonehenge and Druidism. Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, Ca. 1979. P. 75.
Who was this Hu Gardarn -- "Hu the Mighty," a descendant of Abraham? Herman L. Hoeh reveals the answer --
"When and how did the Children of Israel migrate to WESTERN
EUROPE? The answer is found in Cymbric or WELSH HISTORY.
"A fragmentary Welsh record, called the WELSH TRIAD, reads as follows: 'FIRST was the race of the CYMRY, who came with HU GADARN to Ynys Prydain.' Hu came from 'the LAND OF SUMMER' -- a land located somewhere in what later constituted the realm of Constantinople (the capital of the eastern Roman Empire). HE JOURNEYED TO YNYS PRIDAIN -- the Welsh name of the ISLE OF BRITAIN. This FIRST MAJOR SETTLEMENT preceded the migration in 1149 [B.C.] of BRUTUS of Troy to Britain.
"WHO WAS HU GADARN? Gadarn is a Welsh word. It means the 'MIGHTY.' Hu was a short form of the old Celtic name HESUS (Origines Celticae, by Edwin Guest, vol. 2, p. 9). HESUS is the Celtic -- and also the Spanish -- pronunciation of JESUS. Was there a famous 'JESUS' who lived in the balmy summerland of the EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN centuries BEFORE the time of Jesus the Christ? Most certainly! It is found in Hebrew 4: 8, 'For if JESUS (that is, JOSHUA) has given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day.'
"Jesus was merely the GREEK FORM of the Hebrew name JOSHUA. Hu or Hesus the Mighty was JOSHUA THE MIGHTY, the great general who led Israel into Palestine. AND THE WELSH TRIAD RECORDS THAT IN HIS LATER YEARS HE ALSO SETTLED ISRAEL PEACEABLY IN THE BRITISH ISLES. From there, for trading purposes, they spread to the coasts of the Continent which were subject to the GERMAN CYMRY -- the DESCENDANTS OF THE GERMAN KING CIMBRUS (1679-1635)" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II. Ambassador College, Pasadena, Ca. 1963. pp. 48-49).
Settling Israelites in Britain was not the only concern of Hu the Mighty or Joshua. To the end of his life he was faithful to the commands of YEHOVAH God regarding the people of Canaan. It is recorded that in the THIRD YEAR of Romus, son of Testa and king of Spain, a man by the name of "Liber Pater" or Bacchus (Iacchus) conquered SPAIN and brought it under his sway. "He was from the EAST. His title belonged to HESUS THE MIGHTY of Celtic tradition. HESUS WAS JOSHUA (Jesus in Greek). HE PURSUED THE CANAANITES AND DROVE THEM OUT OF WESTERN EUROPE" (Ibid., pp. 122-123).
So WHERE did the Canaanites go?
The Dark-Skinned Lapps
Extending across the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of the old Soviet Union is a region known as LAPLAND -- most of which lies within the Arctic Circle. The people inhabiting this area are known as LAPPS, a third of whom are NOMADIC, living during the winter in the interior and during the summer on the coast. Other Lapps live permanently in scattered settlements on the coast and the numerous fjords, while many are established in villages at the heads of valleys or on well-stocked lakes. The majority of the Lapps live in NORWAY, where they are called FINNS.
According to Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (Volume 15) "the principal occupation of the Lapps is HERDING REINDEER, from which both food and clothing are derived; other occupations are hunting and fishing" (page 55).
The lifestyle of the LAPPS in the sixth century A.D. is mentioned by Procopius, a Byzantine historian who lived circa. 500-565. His observations are discussed by Gwyn Jones in A History of the Vikings:
"Procopius is eloquent on the subject of the midnight sun, but his most striking information relates to the SCRITHIFINOI, Jordane's SCREREFENNAE, THE LAPPS whose way of life was LIKE TO THAT OF BEASTS. They were a HUNTING PEOPLE who drank no wine and raised no crops. They had NO GARMENTS OF CLOTH and nothing he recognized as SHOES; their body's covering derived like its sustenance FROM THE ANIMALS THEY HUNTED AND SLEW, whose skins THEY FASTENED TOGETHER WITH SINEWS. Even their children were nursed differently from the rest of mankind. They knew nothing of the milk of women nor ever touched their mother's breast, but were nourished on marrow from the bones of beasts. As soon as a woman had given birth she THRUST THE CHILD INTO A SKIN which she afterwards hung from a tree. Then having put marrow in the child's mouth she went off with her husband a-hunting." -- Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1984. Pp. 26-27.
Other characteristics and habits of the LAPPS are mentioned in The Indian Tipi: Its History, Construction, and Use, by Reginald and Gladys Laubin --
"In fact, within historic times, we find people living in CONICAL SKIN TENTS all around the Arctic Circle -- THE LAPPS IN EUROPE, the Americanoid Yukaghir in Siberia, INDIANS throughout the entire Mackenzie Area of Canada, among the Caribou Eskimo west of Hudson Bay, and in Labrador. In ALL these tents we have the INSIDE CENTRAL FIRE, THE SMOKE HOLE centering around the crossing of the poles at the top, the EASTERN ENTRANCE, the PLACE OF HONOR within opposite the door, just AS IN THE TIPIS OF THE PLAINS INDIANS [of North America]." -- Ballantine Walden Edition, pp. 1-2.
Further along, on page 222, these same authors mention a visit to SWEDEN and an astounding similarity they discovered there:
"On a recent visit to SWEDEN, we went to the National Museum in Stockholm, where a comprehensive exhibition of LAPP LIFE was displayed. The LAPPS live in CONICAL TENTS, supported by poles, SIMILAR TO A TIPI, BUT RATHER MORE LIKE A WIGWAM, having no smoke flaps and being much smaller than a tipi. Their pole are dragged by reindeer. These poles were DRILLED WITH SMALL HOLES NEAR THE BUTTS AND LACED TO A WIDER LEATHER STRAP ATTACHED TO THE CINCH AND THE PACK SADDLE. The poles were fastened side by side, one above the other, the small ends dragging on the ground. Old Coyote, a CROW INDIAN who was with us, declared that his grandfather told him that THAT WAS EXACTLY HOW HIS PEOPLE USED TO DRAG THEIR POLES." -- Ibid.
Who were these rude people who were nomadic in nature and lived in American Indian style tipis or wigwams in the northern limits of Scandinavia? According to S. Gusten Olson "the Icelander Arngrim Jonas (Jonsson Arngrimr) believed that the LAPPS were to be reckoned among the DESCENDANTS OF THE CANAANITES (Sven Bring, Svea Rikes Historia, p. 45)"
When Joshua invaded Scandinavia "the LAPPS [or the CANAANITES] and the (northern) Finns...[FELL] BACK TO THE EXTREME NORTH OF THE COUNTRY, leaving behind them archaeological vestiges and traces in the geological names of the country. They [THE LAPPS] were the SWEDISH INDIANS, receding before the advance of a POWERFUL CONQUERING RACE [Joshua and the ISRAELITES]" (With the World's People, by Ridpath. Vol. VII).
Notes S. Gusten Olson (The Incredible Nordic Origins):
"In Skandinaviska Nordens Ur-Invanare [by Sven Nilsson] one can read of researching to learn the origin of a culture which was FOREIGN to the Scandinavian countries. Nilsson mentions 'archaeological relics in the earth and the contemporary traditions among the people. The former, because of their beautiful shapes and above all their strange, drawn figures, POINT TO THE ORIENT -- PHOENICIA AND EGYPT; the latter point just as clearly to an old CANAANITE-PHOENICIAN SUN WORSHIP. I have followed these traces as carefully as I have been able.'" -- Nordica S.F. Ltd., Kent, England. P. 14.
Clearly, the present-day Lapps are the descendants of the Canaanites (known to Greek and Roman writers as PIKI and PEUKINI respectively) whom Joshua and the Israelites expelled from Western Europe and Scandinavia.
The Flight to Ireland
The northern limits of Scandinavia was not the only area the fleeing Canaanites migrated to. Bede, in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, records where else the Canaanites traveled to: "It happened that the nation of the PICTS coming into the ocean from Scythia, as is reported, in a few LONG SHIPS, the winds driving them about beyond all the borders of Britain, ARRIVED IN IRELAND, and put into the northern coasts thereof, and finding the nation of the SCOTS there, requested to be allowed to settle among them..." (Book 1, chapter 1).
Seumas MacManus also tells the story of the arrival of the Canaanites in Ireland --
"It was in his reign [Heremon, son of Gathelus], continues the legend, that the CRUITNIGH or PICTS ARRIVED FROM THE CONTINENT. They landed in the southwest, at the mouth of the river Slaney (Inver Slaigne). A tribe of Britons who fought with poisoned arrows were at the time ravaging that corner of the Island. The PICTS helped to drive out the marauders, and in reward were GRANTED A SETTLEMENT THERE, from Crimthann, the chief of that quarter. Afterwards they had an outfall with Crimthann -- and it was decided that they should be PASSED INTO ALBA (SCOTLAND)." -- The Story of the Irish Race, pp. 11-12.
Heremon, King of Ireland from 1433-1418 B.C., remembered the promise his father Gathelus made to the Canaanites when he passed through Germany with his people many years earlier.
Bede, the English historian and theologian (673-735), recalls how Heremon kept his father's charge: "That after the Britons, coming over from Armorica, as it was reported, being at the south, had made themselves masters of the greatest part of the island, it happened that the NATION OF THE PICTS, coming into the ocean from Scythia [Scandinavia], arrived first in IRELAND, whence, BY THE ADVICE OF THE IRISH [Heremon and his people], they sailed over into Britain, and began to inhabit THE NORTHERN PARTS [SCOTLAND] thereof, for the Britons were possessed of the southern" (Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum).
Due to their friendship, Heremon gave the Canaanite chiefs wives of his own people: "The three PICTISH CHIEFS were given IRISH WIVES to take to Alba with them, on condition that henceforth their ROYAL LINE should descend according to the FEMALE SUCCESSION -- which, it is said, was henceforth the LAW among the Alban PICTS" (The Story of the Irish Race, p. 12).
The wives that Heremon gave the Canaanite PICTS were widows of his brothers who perished in the invasion of Ireland.
In the Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots we read of the arrival of the Canaanites in Ireland after their long journey from the East --
"General Vallancey [states] that a 'colony recorded in the Irish history are said to be the CRUITI, or CRUITNI, or PEACTI': 'As a Chllathamhnas Eiremoin tangadur Cruitnith no Peacti, sluagh do thriall on Tracia go Eirinn'...[i.e. IN THE REIGN OF EREMON, THE CRUITI, OR CRUITNI, OR PEACTI, MIGRATED FROM THRACE TO IRELAND.] Herodotus, he says, places the PACTYAE and CRITHOTI in THRACIA CHERNOSESUS. 'These PEACTI or PACTYAE,' he adds, 'are not the PICTI, or woad-painted Britons, (the Welsh,) described by Caesar. They are distinguished by the Scots by the name of PEACTI, a word that sounds exactly as PACTYAE.' (Collectonea de rebus Hibernicis, IV. xvii. xix.) So, according to this, THE PICTS OF IRELAND ARE THE PACTYAE OF THRACE." -- By Joseph Ritson. Vol. II. W.& D. Laing, Edinburgh. 1828. Footnote p. 97.
Earlier, on page 80, Ritson quotes Pinkerton as saying: "IN THEIR ORIGINAL SEATS ON THE EUXINE [BLACK SEA], Greek and Roman writers call them PIKI and PEUKINI; being the real names of PIHTS and PEUHTS mollified, and rendered more distinct (I. 367). The PEUKINI, from every ground of cool probability, were the very first BASTERNAE who passed over [the Bosporus], and proceeded NORTHWEST, till they emerged under the name of PICTI, the PIHTAR, or PEOHTAR, or PIHTAR of the Saxon Chronicle, PEHITI of Witichind, and PEHTS of ancient Scottish poets." (Dissertation, p. 176).
The Land of Thrace
At this juncture we should digress a little and locate the area known as "THRACE." This will help us to understand the migrations of the Canaanites who fled from Joshua and the Israelites and, at a later time, were led from Thrace to Scandinavia under the leadership of a royal scion of the House of Judah.
"Thrace," notes the Encyclopedia Britannica, "[is] a name applied at various periods to areas of different extent....The boundaries of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF THRACE were -- north, the Haemus; east, THE EUXINE SEA [BLACK SEA]; south, the Propontis, the HELLESPONT and the Aegean; and west, the Nestus. The distinguishing features of the country were the chain of Rhodope (Despotodagh) and THE RIVER HEBRUS (Maritza)." "The HEBRUS," continues the Britannica, "with its tributaries, drains almost the whole of THRACE" (1943 edition. Vol. 22, p. 159).
Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia defines the boundaries of Thrace in much the same manner, adding that "the THRACIANS were a barbaric, warlike people who established their own kingdom in the 5th century B.C." (Vol. 23, p. 140). Also, the Thracian tribes tattooed themselves, thus being distinguished from the Celtic tribes.
All modern historians and anthropologists say that the American Indians have their roots in Asia and crossed the Bering Sea to Alaska at some remote time in history. Claims the Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia: "Most anthropologists believe that the majority of Indians are descended from a generalized ASIATIC MONGOLOID population and that they left ASIA before the development of the traits characteristic of Asiatic Mongols. The Indians migrated to the Western Hemisphere from northern Asia about 20,000 B.C., or earlier, VIA THE BERING STRAIT or the Aleutian Islands. Some anthropologists believe that a second and later migration brought peoples with increasingly pronounced MONGOLOID TRAITS to the Western hemisphere."
According to the encyclopedia: "The Indians subsequently spread through North and South America, from the Arctic Regions to the Strait of Magellan, and through the islands of the Caribbean Sea" (Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. N.Y. Vol. 2, p.7).
The Encyclopedia Britannica (1943 edition) states that it is practically certain that the peopling [of North America] took place FROM SIBERIA VIA BERING STRAIT, other land bridges to America being geologically too ancient to have served man....It follows that the RACIAL ORIGIN of the American Indian has to be sought IN ASIA. The findings of anthropometry bear out the inference. The Indian belongs obviously to the MONGOLOID DIVISION of the human species. He is BROWN SKINNED, with STRAIGHT, STIFF, BLACK HEAD HAIR, a MINIMUM OF BEARD AND BODY HAIR, a definitely BROAD FACE (in popular parlance, HIGH CHEEK BONES), and moderate prognathism. These traits are consonant among Indians, as among East Asiatics....The relations of the American Indian are...to the MONGOLOID STOCK as a whole rather than to any specific Mongolian people. THEY ARE PROBABLY CLOSEST TO THE EAST SIBERIANS" (Volume 16, p. 504).
Can this be true? Were the ancestors of the American Indians Mongoloid in stock -- and did they cross to the New World via the Bering Strait? Conversely, how could ALL of the "experts" in today's scholarly community be wrong?
First of all, let's take a look at the so-called Mongoloid origins of the American Indian. A number of open-minded scholars have shown that there are factors for which the strictly Mongoloid hypothesis cannot account. Juan Comas emphatically asserts that Amerindians are NOT a biologically homogenous group ("San los Amerindios un grupo biologicamente homogeneo?" Cuadernos Americanos, 152. may-June 1967. Pp.117-25). Other experts such as G. Albin Matson have agreed that "the American Indians are not completely Mongoloid" ("Distribution of Hereditary Blood Groups among Indians in South America," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 27. 1967: 188). Ernest Hooten of Harvard University believed that Near Easterners may have been a factor in Amerindian racial diversity (Harold Gladwin, Men Out of Asia. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1947. Pp. 63-65). Kirk Magelby has drawn attention to numerous Mesoamerican bearded figures that look more Near Eastern than Mongoloid ("A Survey of Mesoamerican Bearded Figures," F.A.R.M.S. preliminary report, 1979). Polish anthropologist Andrzej Wiercinski has analyzed numerous skulls from major Mesoamrican sites and suggested that the diversity in such specimens can be partially explained by the influence of "migrants from the Western Mediterranean area." He surmises that "ancient Mexico was inhabited by a chain of interrelated populations which cannot be regarded as typical Mongoloids."
The topic of blood-types also raises questions about the so-called Mongoloid origins of the American Indians. According to Hugh Nibley in Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 7, ch. 8, p. 215, "it is fairly well known by now that the PREDOMINANT blood-type among the Mongols is B, a type which is EXTREMELY RARE among the Indians, whose dominant blood-type is O, that being found among 91.3 percent of the pure-blooded North American Indians. 'Here is a mystery,' writes Beals commenting on the disturbing phenomenon, 'that requires much pondering and investigation.'"
I recently received an e-mail from a lady who is part Blackfoot Indian. In her message she said --
"As someone who is a part Blackfoot I have been intrigued by the fact that the Blackfoot are the ONLY Native Americans (at least the only ones typed) who have TYPE A BLOOD -- over 90% of Native Americans have type O blood. You may be aware that human migration patterns have been borne out by blood type dispersal worldwide.
"I have been wondering WHERE this type A blood came from!? Then I found your site, which provided a missing "dot." Combined with this info below, you can clearly see the confirmation of your assertion that the Blackfoot/Delaware/Algonquian were actually THE LAPPS:"
She then went on to quote an article on the History Channel website encyclopedia entitled Races, Classification of:
"Europeans and similar peoples.
The people of Europe are sometimes said to be of Caucasian race because of a now-discredited theory that all peoples of the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe (as well as those of European descent elsewhere) originated in the Caucasus Mountains. When northern Europe became habitable after the Ice Age, some peoples may have migrated there from the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. European peoples range in skin color from swarthy to pale and in hair color from black to ash blond, but they are generally lighter in pigment than any other peoples of the world. Blood group B is highest in eastern Europe and the Middle East; BLOOD GROUP A IS COMMON ON THE FRINGES OF EUROPE -- NOTABLY AMONG THE LAPPS OF NORTHERN FINLAND AND NORWAY. Statue is greatest in northern Europe; hair color is darkest in the southern parts of Europe. The Rh-negative blood type reaches its maximum among the Basques of northern Spain and southern France."
This lady closed by saying: "There is NO DOUBT that these Native Americans were really the LAPPS."
We agree -- the evidence is overwhelming!
The bottom line is that while migrations across the Bering Strait may account for much of the native populations in North America, there is little or no evidence to indicate these peoples are Mongoloid in stock. Also, not all the groups in the Americas can be traced back to a Bering Strait migration. In other words, there is plenty of room for other origins (including transoceanic) -- research is still in its infancy in this area. One interesting, recent example with mitochondrial DNA is the work done by Douglass C. Wallace at Emory University, which led him to conclude that "prehistoric, intrepid mariners" came "out of Southeast Asia across the Pacific into the Americas 6,000 to 12,000 years ago." While I disagree with his dates, direct voyaging from Southeast Asia across the Pacific ocurred because "native Siberians lack one peculiar mutation that appeared in the Amerinds 6,000 to 10,000 [?] years ago," and the DNA signature of natives in the Amazon Basin is SURPRISINGLY RELATED to that of early dwellers in the Pacific Islands.
Another Route to the New World
With all this in mind, let us take a look at the American Indian traditions -- do any of the tribes trace their ancestry back across the Bering Sea to Siberia? And can we trace their origins further west than Siberia?
Long before great cities of steel and glass arose above the landscape of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, this area was the home to another nation -- an almost forgotten nation with its own traditions, history and past heroes. With the arrival of the Europeans this nation was shattered and swept away to become mute entries in encyclopedias and works of history of the white man. But all was not lost. It left behind -- in ancient pictographs -- a record of its history to give us a last glimpse of Ancient America. This account is called the WALLAM OLUM (the RED RECORD), and the people who recorded it are the LENNI LENAPE -- later named the "DELAWARE INDIANS."
In The Red Record: The Oldest Native North American History, translated and annotated by David McCutchen, we read --
"The aboriginal source of the RED RECORD, the Lenni Lenape, or "ORIGINAL PEOPLE," were widely known and respected among the Indian tribes. With a deep knowledge of their past and a tradition of PICTOGRAPHIC RECORDS, the Lenni Lenape were uniquely qualified to write this chronicle of ancient heroes and events." -- Avery Publishing Group Inc., Garden City Park, N.Y. 1993. P. 4.
Anthropologist Werner Muller (Pre-Columbian American Religions) adds --
"In the long chain of tribes along the East Coast, one ethnic group stands out, not only in the European written sources but also in the judgment of the Indians themselves. This remarkable group was the DELAWARE, called in their own language the LENNI LENAPE. They had a special status in the eyes of many other Indian peoples: they were reverenced as the 'grandfathers,' representatives, after a fashion, of authority and legality" -- p. 162.
The Wallam Olum (the Red Record) is the record of the Delaware Indians' ancient history -- told in the form of an epic song. "Recorded in pictures and words, the saga tells of the rise to glory of the Lenni Lenape and their great Lenape family, also called the ALGONQUIANS, the most populous and widespread Native American language group in ancient North America. The Delawares today firmly believe that this is the record of their past" (The Red Record: The Oldest Native North American History. P. 4).
The Algonquian people, comprised of several hundred tribes, occupied most of the Canadian region lying to the south of Hudson Bay between the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Also, they occupied that section of what is now the United States extending northward from North Carolina and Tennessee. In addition, Algonquian tribes lived in various isolated areas to the south and west -- including parts of what are now South Carolina, Iowa, Wyoming and Montana.
The best known of the Algonquian tribes include the Algonquian (from which the stock takes its name), Amalecite, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Conoy, Cree, Delaware, Fox, Gros Ventre, Kickapoo, Massachuset, Miami, Micmac, Mohegan, Mohican, Montagnais, Musi, Narraganset, Naskapi, Nipmuc, Ojibway, Ottawa, Pequot, Potawatomi, Sac, Shawnee, Tete de Boule and Wampanoag.
The Encyclopedia Britannica (1943 edition) relates that this stock "is one of the great stocks of native North America, perhaps the largest on the continent in point of area occupied, extending around latitude 55 degrees continuously from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains, and to the south less regularly as far as Cape Hatteras and the Ohio river. This is essentially the natural region of northern woodland, whose coniferous forests the Algonkin tribes occupied almost exclusively and the deciduous ones largely" (Vol. 1, p. 622).
The encyclopedia goes on to note --
"In general the southern Algonkin tribes farmed, the northern ones were non-agricultural. Three divisions drifted into the northern Plains and became nomadic bison hunters: the Arapaho and Gros Ventre, the Blackfeet and the Cheyenne. The speech of the first two is highly specialized, indicating their separation for a long time; the Cheyenne are later comers in the Plains. In recent generations some of the Cree and Ojibway have begun to take on the Plains type of customs." -- Vol. 1, p. 622.
Cyclone Covey, in his article Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, informs us that when the Algonquin ancestors wended their way to the Great Lakes forests, some groups descended into the St. Lawrence Valley, while one group in particular extended up to North Labrador and down to New Jersey.
In recent years anthropologists have come to realize that the speech of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland, the Kootenay of British Columbia and the Wiyot and Yurok of the Californian coast is a remote branch of Algonquin.
By the time the Europeans arrived in North America, the Delaware may have numbered as many as 20,000, but several wars and at least 14 separate epidemics reduced their population to around 4,000 by the year 1700 -- the worst drops occurring between 1655 and 1670. Since the Delaware afterwards absorbed peoples from several other Algonquian-speaking tribes, this figure remained fairly constant until 1775. By 1845 it had fallen to a combined total of about 2,000 Delaware AND Munsee in both the United States and Canada. The 1910 census came up with roughly the same number; but the current Delaware population has recovered to about 16,000 -- most of them living in Oklahoma. Nearly 10,000 Delaware are in eastern Oklahoma and, until quite recently, were considered part of the Cherokee Nation.
"Delaware" is not a Native American name. The Delaware called themselves Lenape, translated either as "original people" or "true men." The Swedish form was Renape -- showing a link to the Scandinavian countries. For many Algonquian (as in other groups), the Lenni Lenape were the "grandfathers," a term of great respect stemming from the widespread belief that the Lenape were the original tribe of all Algonquian-speaking peoples; and this often gave the Lenape the authority to settle disputes between rival tribes.
A common tradition shared by most Algonquian maintains that the Lenape, Nanticoke and Powhatan were, at some point in the past, a single tribe which lived in the Lenape homeland. Linguistic evidence and migration patterns tend to support this -- leaving only the question of "when."
Occupying the area between northern Delaware and New York, the Lenape were not really a single tribe in 1600 but a set of independent villages and bands. There was no central political authority, and Lenape sachems (chiefs), at best, controlled only a few villages usually located along the same stream. The three traditional Lenape divisions (Munsee, Unami and Unalactigo) were based on differences in dialect and location. However, there was a common sense of being "Lenape" from a shared system of three MATRILINEAL clans which cut across their village and band organizations. Among the Unami and Unalactigo, the Turtle clan ranked first, followed by the Wolf and Turkey. The Munsee apparently only had Wolf and Turkey.
Despite the European insistence that they were one, the Lenape were not a unified tribe until after they had moved to Ohio in the 1740s. Even then their tribal organization followed the pattern of their traditional clans. The tribal council was composed of three sachems, one each from the Turtle, Wolf and Turkey clans with the "head chief" almost always being a member of the Turtle clan. These were hereditary positions from selected families but still required election for confirmation. War chiefs, however, were chosen on the basis of proven ability.
Crossing the Sea
The RED RECORD begins its narrative with the Lenape accounts of Creation and of the great flood of Genesis 7. It continues with the crossing of the Lenape people FROM SIBERIA INTO THE NEW WORLD, and of their encounters with the people who were already inhabiting the North American continent. It includes a TIME SCALE covering more than a THOUSAND YEARS, and an ACCURATE RECORD of their travel over THOUSANDS OF MILES from the cold wastes of Arctic Siberia to the Eastern Seaboard of the U.S.
"The compressed, evocative nature of the words of the Red Record," writes translator David McCutchen, "is consistent with descriptions of the Lenape language. William Penn, for example, called the language 'lofty, yet narrow, but LIKE THE HEBREW; in signification full, like short-hand in writing; one word serveth the place of three, and the rest are supplied by the Understanding of the Hearer...And I must say, that I know not a Language spoken in Europe, that hath words of more sweetness or greatness, in Accent and Emphasis, than theirs'" (The Red Record, p. 16).
To retrace the migration of the Lenni Lenape to the New World, we must project ourselves into the remote wilderness of Siberia, and into the most distant historical past revealed in the Red Record. The eastern part of Siberia is vast -- as large as the continental United States. To the north, the cold, dry tundra of the NORTH SLOPE extends eastward in a long peninsula of barren mountains leading to the Bering Strait. In the center are the evergreen taiga forests, situated beyond low ranges of windswept mountains. These vast forests are watered by the great LENA RIVER -- a river longer than the Mississippi.
To the west, Siberia extends all the way to the Ural Mountains, and for about a third of its area -- from the Urals to some distance beyond the Yenisey River -- is a great plain with few sharp elevations. Sloping generally downwards, from south to north in the west part of this area, are large tracts of swamp punctuated with thousands of small lakes.
The shore of the Arctic Ocean is low and flat. Almost the entire north section of Siberia, extending from the Arctic Ocean south for almost 250 miles, is TUNDRA -- treeless and marshy plains that are perpetually frozen to great depths. The tundra surface thaws sufficiently in summer to permit short-lived vegetation (such as perennial mosses, lichens, and stunted shrubs) to grow, providing support for the migrating REINDEER HERDS.
The evidence in the words and symbols of the Red Record clearly show how, from the cold mountains of their first home, the LENAPE HUNTERS FOLLOWED THE HERDS OF REINDEER and the rivers northward -- spreading into the snowy TUNDRA of the NORTH SLOPE. When their enemies (the Snake people) fled eastward across the rugged and barren wastelands, THE LENAPE PURSUED THEM UNTIL THEY REACHED EASTERN SIBERIA. Hard-working and ingenious, the Lenapi prospered, living off the herds in the plains of Eastern Siberia.
Notes David McCutchen: "The traditions of the Lenni Lenape, as recorded by Heckewelder in a later time when they were known as the Delaware Indians, state that their ancestors came out of a LAND OF ICE AND SNOW in the FAR NORTHWEST of the continent. Other traditions of their closest relatives -- the NANTICOKES, the SHAWNEE, and the MOHICANS -- give even more detail, including what may be descriptions of THE ACTUAL CROSSING OF THE BERING STRAIT itself" (Ibid., p. 38).
A Shawnee legend describing an exploration of the New World was recorded from an oral story related by an old Shawnee at Piqua in Ohio in 1823. It describes in great detail AN ANCIENT ARCTIC HOME, and how and why their ancestors crossed the ocean -- which in the legend is called the GREAT SALT LAKE. "...At some indefinitely remote past, they had arrived at the main land after CROSSING A WIDE WATER. Their ancestors succeeded in this by...walk[ing] over the water as if it had been land."
The symbols and words found in the Red Record clearly show that this crossing was accomplished on a BRIDGE OF ICE; and this event is echoed by a NANTICOKE legend put down in writing in 1767 by the missionary Charles Beatty --
"They came to a GREAT WATER. One of the Indians that went before them tried the depth of it by a long pole or reed, which he had in his hand, and found it too deep for them to wade. Upon their being nonplused, and not knowing how to get over it, their God made a BRIDGE over the water in one night, and the next morning, after they were all over, God took away the bridge." -- Journal, p. 21.
The MOHICANS, also closely related to the Lenni Lenape, recalled this event. According to Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, in his Lenape and Their Legends, "the Mohican's description reflects the strong currents characteristic of the BERING STRAIT, as well as its abundant marine life, with great numbers of whales migrating between the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean" (pp. 136-137).
Even the mighty CHEYENNE, a LENAPE TRIBE of the great plains, have a tradition of this crossing. In an extraordinary narrative they recall:
"...having lived in a land that was perpetually covered with ice and snow. Trying to escape the continual rule of Hoimaha [the winter storm], they started EASTWARD toward the sun. After many years, they came to a NARROW NECK OF SEA at a time when the water was frozen. As the people were about halfway across the frozen water, one of the young women discovered a horn sticking out of the ice.
"The horn took her fancy. Even in these difficult times of moving, the women and the children made sliding sticks from horns and managed to enjoy life a little more. The woman wanted this horn, for it was large and long, and would make a splendid sliding stick. She tried to pull the horn out of the ice, but the harder she pulled, the tighter the horn seemed to be imbedded. Finally, she called to her relatives for assistance. Some of the men came and helped her. But, like her, they were unable to pull the horn out. Then, they began to cut the horn, for they liked the girl and wanted to make her happy. As they cut deeper into the horn, blood spurted out in great gushes.
"The people were frightened and grouped together on both sides of the men who had been cutting the horn. Just as they realized that the horn must be that of a monster, they felt a great tremor and knew that the monster must be struggling below the FROZEN WATER. Before anyone could move away, the ICE suddenly broke, the horn disappeared, and a great chasm appeared. Some of the people were drowned. Many of them found themselves before an ever-widening channel of water, so they had to retreat to the land from whence they had come. THOSE ON THE SIDE TOWARD THE SUN watched their friends retreat; then, saddened by the insuperable gulf between them, they took flight onward IN PURSUIT OF THE SUN and moved INTO THE EAST and THE NEW LAND. Never have these people -- the Tsi-Tsi-Tsas [Cheyenne] -- forgotten this story." -- Horn In The Ice, by Dusenberry, p. 12. Recorded in a personal interview with Rufus Wallowing, Lame Deer, Montana, 1955, who had heard it in 1951 from Frank Old Bird, age 80, of the Southern Cheyenne.
So where does this leave us? The evidence of modern scholars AND the traditions of the Lenni Lenape seem iron-clad. Some of the North American tribes must have come from Siberia -- crossing over the Bering Strait into the New World. Does that mean that the Indians come from Mongoloid stock rather than from Canaanite stock? Not at all! Notice!
The Red Record indicates that the Lenni Lenape were centered around the LENA RIVER in Central Siberia. In fact, LENAPE is derived from LENA -- the river that sustained them for a time in their wanderings. The words and symbols of the Record indicate a movement from this area northeast to the regions of the Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers. Here, to this day, can be found remnants of the Lenape and other groups who were left behind when their people migrated eastward toward the Bering Strait.
Apart from the Lenape there is a remnant, described by the Encyclopedia Britannica, and known by the name of YUKAGHIR:
"The Yukaghir are a Palaeo-Siberian tribe, mainly found now between the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers and occupied in HUNTING AND FISHING. They are very short, with yellow or BROWN COMPLEXION, DARK EYES AND HAIR, and SCANTY BEARDS. They are fast dying out, especially since the advance westwards of the Chukchee has lessened the number of WILD REINDEER." -- 1943 edition. Vol. 23, p. 874.
There is another interesting characteristic of the Yukaghir -- they lived in WIGWAMS just like the Lapps! Ethnologists have noticed that the Yukaghir, Chukchee and the Koryak on the Siberian side are IDENTICAL to the Dene, Tlingit and Haida on the American side in physique, speech and customs. These tribes, part of the great Na-Dene language group, sailed from the sea-otter trading-depot at the mouth of the Amur River (site of Vladivostok) via the Kamchatka Current past the Aleutian Islands to the Alaska Peninsula. From here the tribal bands strewed down coast and inland -- some (the Apache) reaching into Mexico.
We have noted that the Canaanites in Scandinavia were pushed up into the Arctic region by the waves of incoming Israelites. Following a hunting and fishing economy and dependent upon the REINDEER for almost every aspect of their lives they, like their descendants the North American Indians, followed the herds in their annual migrations. In the summer the reindeer herds migrated EAST along the tundra of the North Slope looking for food -- and the Lapps followed them. Eventually they penetrated as far as Central Siberia and the area of the LENA RIVER.
The Lenni Lenape were the SAME stock as the migrating LAPPS, and therefore descendants of the Canaanites! Nordenstreng, in his Europas manniskoraser och folkslag (page 237), tells us that the crania of the Lapps are wide and short. In most cases they have a BROWNISH COMPLEXION, although one occasionally may see a light-complexioned one.
"Their hair is most often dark, straight, and coarse....The Lapps IN RUSSIA have grey eyes, but those in NORWAY, FINLAND, and SWEDEN have DARK EYES. As far as the Lapps are concerned, the growth of the beard is sparse and straggling." And, note this, "further characteristics of the Lapp type are relatively LONG ARMS and SHORT LEGS. The Lapp type has several features which are SIMILAR TO THE MONGOLIAN, yet WITHOUT the characteristically OBLIQUE EYES and the FLAT, WIDE NOSE" (pages 237, 238).
In other words, the LAPPS ARE NOT MONGOLOID -- NEITHER ARE THE AMERICAN INDIANS! The Indians are definitely NOT descended from the Mongoloid peoples of Asia -- as modern anthropologists would have you believe. The Indians of North, Central and South America are descended from CANAANITE STOCK and arrived in the New World by different routes -- some across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, others across the icy wastes of Siberia.The Canaanites reached the New World by many routes -- including that of the Bering Strait.
In 1838 a stone with strange markings was dug out of a mound near the Ohio River. Known as the GRAVE CREEK STONE, this artifact has caused much controversy in scholastic circles. M. Levy Bing reported to the Congress of Americanists at Nancy, in 1875, that he found 23 CANAANITE LETTERS in the inscription!
Barry Fell, author of numerous books on ancient civilizations, translated the inscription to read:
"The mound raised-on-high for Tasach
[His] queen caused-to-be-made."
Professor Fell identified the language of the Grave Creek stone as SPANISH PUNIC (closely related to the Canaanite) from the first-millennium B.C.
William F. Dankenbring, in his book Beyond Star Wars, records the use of Hebrew-sounding words amongst various North American tribes. Since Hebrew is very similar (almost identical) to the old Phoenician, these words were probably of CANAANITE origin. Says Dankenbring: "Say these two reputable scientists of the last century [Mariano Edward Rivero and John James von Tschudi], 'The use of Hebrew words [probably Phoenician] was NOT uncommon in the religious performances of the NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, and Adair assures us that they called an accused or guilty person: HAKSIT CANAHA, "A SINNER OF CANAAN;" and to him who was inattentive to religious worship, they said, TSCHI HAKSIT CANAHA, "YOU RESEMBLE A SINNER OF CANAAN" ' " (Triumph Publishing Co. 1978, pp. 101-102).
More and more scholars are beginning to realize that peoples from the Middle East and Europe reached the shores of the New World long before Christopher Columbus or storm-lost Vikings. "One STONE, found at Fort Benning, Georgia," writes Dankenbring, "has unusual markings all over it. I saw the stone myself, and took photographs of it....The inscription on the stone, he [Dr. Cyrus Gordon] asserts, is in the WRITING STYLE OF CANAAN, the promised land of the Hebrews" (Ibid., p. 82).
I mentioned earlier that the Picts were known as Piki or Peukini; one of the Algonquin tribes known as the Piegan (usually lumped with the Blackfeet) called themselves Pikunni (Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, by Cyclone Covey).
Located in western Montana, the Piegans, or Pikuni branch of the Blackfeet (Blackfoot) Confederacy is the southernmost group of Blackfeet (Blackfoot) Indians. The other two branches, the Siksika and the Kainah or Blood, are residents of Canada. In Canada, the singular term "Blackfoot" is preferred, the Pikuni are always referred to in the plural "Blackfeet". The Pikuni, which means "poorly dressed", occupy a reservation of 937,838 acres straddling the border with Canada and abutting Glacier National Park. Their reservation was established in 1855.
The pre-eminent epigrapher Barry Fell of New Zealand, Harvard University and San Diego extracted Egyptian, Libyan, Numidian, Greek, Celtic, Semitic and Norse from the Algonquin language and assumed that these tongues were fused onto an older primeval tongue that the Algonquins were already speaking. He also noted as additional language in west-Algonquin dialects -- that of Siberic!
These additions to the original Algonquin tongue were picked up during their migrations across North Africa into Spain, and also across Europe to the north-points of Norway. The Siberic, of course, was picked up as they passed through Siberia on their way to North America!
Cyclone Covey noticed that "Micmac-Algonquin writing was Egyptian hieratic" and that the Libyan and Numidian components of the Algonquin tongue was that of "befeathered bowmen of Libya, Numidia, Gaetulia, and Mauretania -- most of them practicing the Egyptian religion of Carthage, whose Vatican was Siwa in the Libyan Desert of extreme West Egypt. The chief Carthaginian and Phoenician god, Baal Hammon, was Lord Amon, sun-god of Egypt as conceived in Thebes, mother-city of Siwa."
Siwa was, and still is today, the center of the Berber people in that part of North Africa. The Berbers were Canaanite in origin.
The Assiniboin tribe of North America retained a legend of ocean-crossing -- understanding Ireland to be their point of origin (ibid.).
And, finally, Algonquin wigwams closely resembled Saharan Gaetulian huts which were introduced into Morocco by the Berbers (read Canaanites!) (ibid).
A Thorn in the Side
It was ordained that the Canaanites would always be a THORN in the side of Israel. Notes J. H. Allen:
"But where Israel and Dan are, there, too, MUST THE CANAANITE BE, and it is a well-known fact that the settlers of southern Ireland are a vastly different people from those of northern Ireland, and that the difference IS IN THEIR ORIGIN, for they sprang from a DIFFERENT RACE. Moses said to Israel: 'But if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land before you; then it shall come to pass that those which ye let remain of them SHALL BE PRICKS IN YOUR EYES AND THORNS IN YOUR SIDES, and shall VEX YOU in the land wherein ye dwell.' (Num. 33:55) The Lord also said, 'If ye do in anywise go back and cleave unto the REMNANT OF THESE NATIONS, even those that remain among you, and shall make marriages with them, and go in unto them, and they to you; know for a certainty that the Lord your God will no more drive out any of these nations from before you; BUT THEY SHALL BE SNARES AND TRAPS UNTO YOU.'" (Josh. 23:12-13.) -- Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p. 287.
Charles A.L. Totten concurs:
"But where DAN and ISRAEL are, there, too, we must find the CANAANITES (Num. xxxiii.55; Josh. xxiii.13). We have them in the Irish -- THE SOUTHERN IRISH. These lived with Dan and Simeon in Palestine, and CAME WITH HIM TO IRELAND. They boast of their PHOENICIAN ORIGIN (Fenians!), had the sixteen-letter alphabet, etc., etc., and are, to this day, 'hewers of wood and haulers of water,' and 'thorns in the side and pricks in the eyes' of the English and Americans only. Truly the CANAANITE is still in the land of Israel, but they are left for a purpose (Jud. iii.1-4); namely, to prove Israel." -- Our Race: Its Origin and its Destiny. The "Our Race" Publishing Co., New Haven, Conn. 1890, p.129.
How very true! The Canaanites have been a thorn in the side of Israel in all her wanderings. When Joshua entered the Promised Land of Palestine the Canaanites were there to meet them; and when the Israelites entered the Promised Land of America the Canaanites were there to meet them at the shore! YEHOVAH God's Word never fails!
Hope of Israel Ministries
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