Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
Should Christian-Israelite Males Be Circumcised?
It wasn't until Acts 15 that controversy began to surround circumcision. The issue was not whether to abolish circumcision or not -- the issue concerned the MOTIVATION behind circumcision! For an Israelite person who loves YEHOVAH God and keeps His commandments and laws (1 John 5:2,3), circumcision is required. Why? Because it is a seal of the righteousness of one's faith (Romans 4:11).
by John V. Cordaro and John D. Keyser
Circumcision was essential to the true worship of Almighty God throughout the Old Testament. Does the New Covenant abolish it? Is it still an essential part of true worship? Have certain aspects of circumcision been changed as part of the New Covenant? This study will hopefully help to answer these and other questions concerning circumcision.
First of all we need to understand what the word "New" in New Covenant really means. Actually, the word "new," in this connection, does NOT mean "new" at all! The Greek word kainos means, instead, "to freshen" or "renew." Explains Nancy L. Kuehl, "Jesus was not making a "new" covenant but was refreshing and renewing the original one [Old Covenant]. As he himself admitted, he did not come to abolish the Torah, but to completely explain it" (A Book of Evidence: The Trials and Execution of Jesus, page 62).
With this in mind, let's take a look at Genesis 17:
Genesis 17:10-14, "This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant."
In this passage we see circumcision as a token or sign of the covenant between Abraham and YEHOVAH God (verse 11). The Apostle Paul said this sign of circumcision is actually a seal of the righteousness of faith even while Abraham was yet uncircumcised:
Romans 4:11, "And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith..."
We also learn from this passage (Genesis 17:10-14) that circumcision is not only an outward sign of the Abrahamic Covenant, but it is an EVERLASTING COVENANT itself (verse 13). It is also a seal of the righteousness of faith! That circumcision itself is a covenant can be seen in Acts 7:8:
Acts 7:8, "And he gave him the covenant of circumcision: and so Abraham begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat the twelve patriarchs."
An everlasting covenant, or any covenant for that matter, is a serious responsibility -- especially when it involves one's Creator. It was so serious that our Father declared the covenant breaker to be cut off from his people (Genesis 17:14).
Although circumcision was commanded before the law was given at Mount Sinai, we see its inclusion in the law:
Leviticus 12:2-3, "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a man child: then she shall be unclean seven days; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised."
The Eighth Day
It is primarily performed on eight day old males, not adults. That is not to say adults were never circumcised. It was usually due to an extraordinary circumstance that an adult would be circumcised such as; Abraham and his household to begin the covenant (Genesis 17:23-27); the children of Israel who were entering the promised land after their wilderness wanderings (Joshua 5:2-7); uncircumcised adults who wanted to partake of the Passover (Exodus 12:48), etc.
While YEHOVAH God did not explain why it was necessary to carry out circumcision on the eighth day, it has been discovered in recent years WHY the eighth day was indeed a good time to circumcise. Normal amounts of the blood-clotting element known as Vitamin K are not found in the blood until the fifth to the seventh day after birth. Another clotting factor known as Prothrombin is present in amounts only about 30 percent of normal on the third day but on the eighth day is higher than at any other time in the child's life -- as much as 110 percent of normal. So, following YEHOVAH's instructions would help to avoid the danger of hemorrhage. As Doctor S. I. McMillen observes: "From a consideration of vitamin K and prothrombin determinations the perfect day to perform a circumcision is the eighth day...[the] day picked by the Creator of vitamin K" (None of These Diseases, 1986, p. 21).
The fact that YEHOVAH God, in His forming of the Adamic, male body, brought all these factors together on the eighth day is an indication of the importance He places on circumcision! If circumcision was just a short-term ritual, WHY go to all the trouble of creating -- in the human Adamic male -- a number of anti-hemorrhaging agents that peaked on the eighth day? In the Old Testament circumcision is the ONLY God-ordained procedure to take place on the eighth day after a male's birth! And for it to be so important that it takes precedence over the Sabbath?
Our Savior Yeshua was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke 2:21) as well as John the Baptist (Luke 1:59) and the Apostle Paul (Philippians 3:4,5). The Messiah's only reference to circumcision shows that it takes precedence over the Sabbath!
John 7:22-23, "Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision; (not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers) and ye on the Sabbath day circumcise a man. If a man on the Sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the Sabbath day?"
There is also great significance to the number "eight" in the mind of YEHOVAH God! The number eight in the Bible represents a NEW BEGINNING -- meaning a new order or creation, and the Israelite man's true "born again" event when he is resurrected from the dead into eternal life. The number eight is a new first, hence the octave in music, color, days of the week, etc. It is the number which has to do with the Messiah (the second Adam), who rose from the dead on the eighth or new "first day."
E. W. Bullinger, in his book Number in Scripture, explains about the meaning and symbolism of numbers, including the number "eight." He declares:
"In Hebrew the number eight is Sh'moneh, from the root Shah'meyn, 'to make fat,' 'cover with fat,' 'to super-abound.' As a participle it means 'one who abounds in strength,' etc. As a noun it is 'superabundant fertility,' 'oil,' etc. So that as a numeral it is the superabundant number. As seven was so called because the seventh day was the day of completion and rest, so eight, as the eighth day, was over and above this perfect completion, and was indeed the FIRST of a new series, as well as being the eighth. Thus it already represents two numbers in one, the first and eighth" (p. 196).
Even as "seven" is YEHOVAH's number of perfection, or completion (as the Sabbath is the seventh day of the week, which completes and perfects the week), so "eight" is the same as the first day of the NEXT week, but counting from the days of the previous week. Thus it represents clearly "A NEW BEGINNING."
An example of "eight" used in this connection in the Scriptures is the fact that as Peter tells us, there were EIGHT souls in the Ark of Noah, who helped begin the NEW WORLD after the Flood! We read of the time when "the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water" (I Peter 3:20).
Interestingly, in the Millennial Temple that YEHOVAH God described in Ezekiel, we find that there were seven steps that led into the outer court (Ezekiel 40:22, 26); however, there were eight steps that led from the outer court to the inner court (Ezekiel 40:31, 34, 37). The first seven led from labor to rest, but the eight led from rest to intimate fellowship with YEHOVAH God and pure worship!
The consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests of YEHOVAH God required seven days of being set apart (Leviticus 8:35), but it was on the "eighth day" that they were anointed as "priests," thus beginning a "new" ministry and office before YEHOVAH God and the people.
David was the "eighth" son of Jesse, thus also beginning a "new dynasty" in Israel when he became king (I Samuel 16:10-11; II Samuel 17:12).
In the words of the Epistle of Barnabas, YEHOVAH God declares that "after I have set everything at rest, I will create the beginning of an eighth day, which is the beginning of another world" (15.8).
Bullinger adds concerning the significance of this number "8":
"It is 7 plus 1. Hence it is the number specially associated with Resurrection and Regeneration [the Messiah was resurrected on the "eighth" day, or the first day of the week], and the BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA OR ORDER.
"When the whole earth was covered with a flood, it was Noah 'the eighth person' (II Peter 2:5) who stepped out on to a new earth to commence a new order of things. 'Eight souls' (I Peter 3:20) passed through it with him to the new or regenerated world.
"Hence, too, circumcision was to be performed on the EIGHTH DAY (Genesis 17:12)....The first-born was to be given to Jehovah on the eighth day (Exodus 22:29-30).
The Passover Link
There is a link between Passover and the rites of circumcision, or brit. This is a logical connection since the Messiah was "circumcised" by death to the flesh on the eve of Passover. The Hebrew word for circumcision meaning "to cut off flesh" is, as we have seen, associated with the covenant between YEHOVAH God and Abraham -- i.e., the brit (or berith), which also means "to cut pieces of flesh as a compact." Writes Nancy L. Kuehl:
"Circumcision was regarded as death to the 'flesh' of a man, thereby separating him from the 'world' and giving him a fresh spiritual life. It is also connected with sacrifice because of the akedah (the binding and sacrifice of Isaac). The 'circumcision' of Jesus, that is, his death (in which his flesh was 'cut off' [by stoning]) symbolically 'safeguarded' his entire body of followers, the 'assembly' of the firstborn, by 'cutting' what Christians now call a 'New Covenant,' the brit...The 'head' of the fleshly body [the Ecclesia] was cut off by death, just as the flesh of the male genital organ is cut away. It is on the occasion of circumcision that Hebrew children receive their new spiritual names" (A Book of Evidence: The Trials and Execution of Jesus, p. 62).
Notice what Frankel and Teutsch's Encyclopedia says:
"By cutting off the foreskin and ritually offering it to God, the Jew symbolically safeguards the whole body by sacrificing a part of it. The baby thus marks his transition from a purely natural state into the social community. Only at the circumcision does he formally receive his Hebrew name" (page 26).
Nancy Kuehl goes on to say that "for this reason Jesus not only received his new name but promised a new name to those 'separated' from Mystery Babylon [Roman Catholic Church and daughters] in the book of Revelation (12:17). Within Jesus' circumcision of death [by stoning] we then find the [natural] HUMAN suffering servant Jesus receiving his new name: Emmanuel [his social and political position in the Kingdom society], prince (or literally, high priest) of Israel, the triumphant Messiah who will 'head the truncated body' of the spiritual and physical Kingdom of YHVH...
"In Luke Jesus is a MAN like any other and receives his natural name at birth. But he is destined as the Messiah of Israel to receive a new name at his death by circumcision, one that reflects his social status as Prince [High Priest or nasi] in YHVH's Kingdom...Mary gives birth to the HUMAN SON, Jesus, and Israel gives birth to the SPIRITUAL Messiah, who ruling by the holy spirit of the Father dwelling within him [YHVH with us] is to be the representative Emmanuel, Prince (High Priest, nasi) of the peaceful kingdom of YHVH. The process of receiving a new name through the circumcision of death institutes the 'Kingdom of YHVH'" (ibid., pp. 62-63).
The Motivation Behind Circumcision
It wasn't until Acts 15 that controversy began to surround circumcision. The issue was not whether to abolish circumcision or not -- the issue concerned the MOTIVATION behind circumcision. The false teachers were saying:
Acts 15:1, "...Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved."
This led to much disputing. At one point Peter rose up and said:
Acts 15:10, "Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?"
Did he mean circumcision was a yoke too difficult to bear? NO! He was referring to one having to bear the yoke of his own sins. For if we seek to be saved through works rather than through the faith of the Messiah, then the Messiah's sacrifice is of no effect for us. We will be bearing our own sins upon our own necks, seeking to be justified by works rather than faith.
After Paul and Barnabas gave their testimonies, James pronounced his sentence of what should be done. The "Gentiles" (those of the northern ten tribes of Israel in dispersion) were not to be troubled concerning circumcision. They had far more serious problems that needed to be dealt with. They were to abstain from pollutions of idols (for they were coming out of gross idolatry); from fornication (which was prevalent in the society in which they lived); from things strangled (another common practice among those of the northern ten tribes living in non-Israelite countries that causes blood to remain in the meat); and from blood (the drinking of which was a delicacy among these nations, yet forbidden by YEHOVAH God), at Acts 15:20, 29.
The Israelite converts living in these countries had far more problems than these four issues but, as verse 21 states, since they would hear Moses preached every Sabbath when they attended synagogue services they would eventually learn the rest of the law. For now, however, they would need to correct their most detestable habits.
The Galatian Controversy
The decision of the Jerusalem council did not end the controversy concerning circumcision. We see Paul having to address the problem again years later at Galatia.
Galatians 5:1-4, "Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage. Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace."
This was Peter's same argument against circumcision for justification in Acts 15. Paul declares that anyone who seeks to be justified by the law, whether it be circumcision, Sabbath-keeping, honoring parents, or whatever, is fallen from grace and the Messiah's sacrifice for their sins is made null and void. You read that correctly: if we teach others that they must honor their parents, for example, in order to be saved, we are fallen from grace. But notice this: if the problem in Galatia had been honoring parents for justification rather than circumcision for justification, do you think Christianity would have developed a doctrine stating the law of honoring parents is abolished? Of course not. So why do they teach circumcision is abolished? Dear reader, circumcision is not abolished. Circumcision for justification or salvation is abolished.
The State You Were Called In...
Perhaps your thoughts immediately turn to:
1 Corinthians 7:18, "Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised."
In Paul's advice concerning marriage he admonishes the Corinthian Israelites to remain in whatever state they were called. If they were called while married to an unbelieving Israelite, they were to remain married, etc. He uses circumcision as an example of remaining in the state you were called. If you (as an Israelite) were uncircumcised when you were called by YEHOVAH God, you are to remain uncircumcised all your life. Of course, this admonition of Paul does not require strict adherence as his circumcision of Timothy shows (Acts 16:1-4). In that case it was more expedient that Timothy be circumcised so as not to hinder the preaching of the good news among the circumcision. This type of circumcision was acceptable because it was not done to justify or save Timothy.
Some believe 1 Corinthians 7:18 proves circumcision was abolished. That is not true. What it demonstrates is YEHOVAH's provision for a special circumstance. Had those of the northern ten tribes been raised by parents who obeyed Almighty God, including circumcising their sons on the eighth day, new Israelite converts to the faith would not be concerned with this issue! However, since they now find themselves in a state that is contrary to YEHOVAH's everlasting covenant of Genesis 17:13 -- and no longer able to obey the commandment since the eighth day of their life has past -- an exception was made. They may remain uncircumcised and give thanks to YEHOVAH God:
Colossians 2:11, "In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ:"
Children of Converts from the Northern Ten Tribes
What happens in the case of converts from the northern ten tribes who were called by YEHOVAH God while uncircumcised and who father male children? Should they obey YEHOVAH God and keep His everlasting covenant and commandment to circumcise the child on the eighth day? YES!
First of all, the New Testament issue of circumcision always concerned justification by faith vs. justification by works. No other issue concerning circumcision was in question. Second, Acts 21:21 proves Paul never meant for people to believe circumcision was abolished. It reads:
Acts 21:21, "And they are informed of thee, that thou teachest all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, saying that they ought not to circumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs."
The margin of the Thompson Chain-Reference Bible categorizes this verse under the heading "false accusations." That is what it was, lies. Paul never taught anyone to forsake Moses or the circumcision of their children. He merely, under the guidance of the holy spirit, gave the Israelite converts living in non-Israelite countries special instructions for a special circumstance.
The solution of the Jerusalem elders to the false accusations was for Paul to join four other men in a vow. The hoped for outcome of such a vow would be that,
Acts 21:24, "...whereof they were informed concerning thee, are nothing; but that thou thyself also walkest orderly, and keepest the law."
The fact that Paul took the vow proves his desire was to refute the false accusations.
Acts 25:7-8, "And when he was come, the Jews which came down from Jerusalem stood round about, and laid many and grievous complaints against Paul, which they could not prove. While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all."
Paul refuted their false accusations, and took an oath that he has kept the law of the Jews. So what is the truth? Paul believed his Israelite brothers should circumcise their children and should not forsake Moses or their customs.
Romans 2:25, "For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision."
Therefore, for a person that loves YEHOVAH God and keeps His commandments and laws (1 John 5:2, 3), circumcision is profitable. Why? Because it is a seal of the righteousness of one's faith and an indication of a true Israelite (Romans 4:11). Indeed, whenever any Israelite parent obeys our Father in Heaven and circumcises his son on the eighth day he is demonstrating or sealing the righteousness of his faith.
Circumcision of the Heart
This brings us to the matter of circumcision of the heart. Circumcision of the heart was a Divine requirement of the Israelites who were already circumcised in the flesh. Circumcision of the heart in NO WAY does away with circumcision of the flesh! Moses told Israel:
Leviticus 26:41, "...if then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, and they then accept of the punishment of their iniquity:"
Deuteronomy 10:16, "Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiff-necked."
Deuteronomy 30:6, "And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live."
Jeremiah reminded the wayward nation in his day of the same thing:
Jeremiah 4:4, "Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart..."
"Circumcision of the heart" means getting rid of anything in one's thinking, affections, or motives that is displeasing and unclean in YEHOVAH's eyes and that makes the heart unresponsive. In a similar fashion, ears that are not sensitive or responsive are spoken of as "uncircumcised" (Jeremiah 6:10; Acts 7:51).
Throughout the Old Testament, YEHOVAH's people were to circumcise not only the foreskin of their flesh, but also the foreskin of their hearts. As the Messiah said in Matthew 5:17, "Don't think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets. I have come not to abolish but to complete" (Jewish New Testament). This meant they were to no longer walk in their ways, doing their own will, stiffening their necks to YEHOVAH's commandments. Instead, they were to repent of their sins and keep His commandments, showing their love for Him through obedience. Does that describe you? Can you be characterized by a circumcised heart or are you among those who teach men to break YEHOVAH God's commandments by teaching the law and circumcision are abolished?
What About Non-Israelites?We have to ask, What about those non-Israel people who are neither Canaanite, Moabite or Edomite, etc? What does Scripture say about these? What is the circumcision requirement for these peoples? There is a chapter in the Book of Isaiah that lays the groundwork for this very question -- notice!
Then, in Zechariah 2:11 we read --
"For thus says the LORD: Maintain justice, and do what is right, for soon My salvation will come, and soon My deliverance will be revealed. Blessed is the one who does this, and the person that holds fast, who observes the Sabbath without profaning it, and restrains his hands from doing any evil. Let no foreigner who has joined himself to the LORD say, 'The LORD will surely exclude me from His people'; and let no eunuch say, 'I am just a dry tree.' For thus says the LORD: To the eunuchs who observe My Sabbaths, and who choose the things that please Me and hold fast My covenant: to them I will give in My house and within My walls a monument and a name better than sons and daughters. I will give them an everlasting name that will not be cut off.
"Also the foreigners who join themselves to the LORD, to be His servants, and to bless the LORD's name and observing the Sabbath without profaning it, and who hold fast My covenant: these I will bring to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will rise up to be accepted on My altar; for My house will be called a house of prayer for all peoples. Thus says the LORD God, who gathers the outcasts of Israel: I will gather still others to them besides those already gathered" (Isaiah 56:1-8, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible).
"And many nations shall join themselves to the LORD in that day, and shall be My people; and I will dwell in the midst of you, and you shall know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you" (ibid.).
It is important to notice what is NOT said here: no offer of salvation and eternal life. An everlasting name is promised, as well as joy in YEHOVAH's house of prayer. The very fact that foreigners (non-Israelites) will be offering burnt offerings and sacrifices on YEHOVAH's altar indicates that they are not under the Law. They were not given the Commandments, Statutes and Judgments that were given to Israel. Because they did not have the Law of Moses to break, why should they need redeeming from the curse of that broken Law? Through Scripture, redemption is spoken of only in regard to Israel. "All have sinned and come short of the glory of God" refers only to the "all" within those to whom the Law was given (Rom. 3:19).
At first glance these passages tend to confirm that foreigners will become one with Israel as one people, that YEHOVAH's blessing upon Israel will overflow to other races. While it is true that foreigners are blessed in their being joined to Israel, it is the manner in which they will be blessed that most churches fail to understand. They will be blessed as becoming "servants and handmaids"! This we clearly see in Isaiah 14:
"For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land: and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob. And the people shall take them, and bring them to their place: and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the LORD for servants and handmaids: and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were; and they shall rule over their oppressors" (Isaiah 14:1-2).
Mercy is “on Jacob” and this excludes all the other races. The meaning of foreigners being “joined” to Israel says nothing about mercy to foreigners; “joined” having a different meaning. So, as we read on, many passages confirm that those joining themselves to Israel become “servants and handmaids” to Israelites. “Possess”, as in “shall possess them”, has the meaning of “take possession”. Israel takes “possession” of the foreigners.
The “people”, as a congregation is one unit, comprising of masters and servants, just as the “church in the wilderness” under Moses was, where the “congregation of the LORD” (edah) was comprised of Israelites, together with the “mixed multitude”. In the wilderness the two groups, within the one unit, were treated the same in regard to Law, but were treated differently in temple service, with only the cahal (Israelites) being able to attend the tabernacle.
We also know from Biblical statement that no one can enter the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God unless they are of Israel. Therefore, it means that people of other races have no eternal life in the Kingdom and if there is no eternal life in the Kingdom, there is no eternal life of any kind available to them. It is not a case of them being “condemned”; it is simply a matter of them having no eternal life. Unworthy Israelites will die, be resurrected, condemned and have their spirit taken from them (this is the message of the parable of the Ten Talents). Their lifeless bodies will be destroyed in the Lake of Fire. This should be a matter of concern to every individual Israelite. But if someone of another race is to die and never to be resurrected, what does it matter to them once they are dead? There is no awareness in the grave, only corruption of the body. If you go to sleep and do not wake up until lunchtime tomorrow, you will not know what time the sun rose. If you die in your sleep, you will not know you are dead.
Life after death is a mystical vision for most races and involves speculation about a fabulous harem for Arabs on the one hand, through to re-incarnation for the Hindus, on the other. The Bible tells us nothing about the resurrected life other than that we cannot even begin to imagine it. If we care about it, as Israelites, we will strive to attain it and will receive it. If we care not, we will see it momentarily and know absolute remorse, panic and terror as we face oblivion in the Lake of Fire. But once that occurs, we will know nothing and will be the same as any non-Israelite who dies. There is no such thing as Hell and eternal punishment -- only life and oblivion.
Since, therefore, non-Israelites are not a party to the covenants between YEHOVAH God and Israel, they are not required to take part in the covenant of circumcision. Circumcision, as we have seen, is a sign (an identifying mark) between YEHOVAH God and His people Israel -- only!
In conclusion, anyone of Israel who is called by our Father in Heaven into the true faith while uncircumcised should remain uncircumcised. If that person has a male child, he should be circumcised on the eighth day in obedience to YEHOVAH's commandment and as a sign of the Abrahamic Covenant which he is taking part in as Abraham's physical seed. Infant circumcision is not to be done so that the child can be saved, but because the father is already saved and now bears the fruit of obedience of his salvation.
Hope of Israel Ministries -- Proclaiming the Good News of the Soon-Coming Kingdom of YEHOVAH God Here On This Earth!
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